THE WATER FRONT: MAKING YOUR WATER SAFE TO DRINK
calculations indicate that taking a shower exposes you to
the equivalent of consuming an additional two liters of chlorinated
water each day. Inhalation and skin absorption of chloroform
by-products is greatest in the shower, where these gases are vaporized.” THE
WATER YOU DRINK: HOW SAFE IS IT?
“ While the purity of our drinking water is of primary importance, contaminants
and chlorine byproducts also enter our bodies through
the skin via the water in which we bathe. Also, our lungs absorb toxic fumes
byproducts that are released in a steamy shower. Chlorine
in shower water can strip protein from our hair and skin causing dry, irritated
and dandruff.” WATER: THE ULTIMATE CURE
“ The total inhalation exposure (summation of the three scenarios; shower,
pre- and post-cooking activities and cooking) was found
to be comparable with that for direct ingestion, indicating that inhalation
is an important
pathway for THM exposure from drinking water.” SCI TOTAL ENVIRON-Jan
“ The use of chlorine for water treatment to reduce the risk of infectious
disease may account for a substantial portion of the
cancer risk associated with drinking water.” ENVIRON HEALTH PERSPECT-
“ Strong relationships were identified between the THM breath concentrations
collected after a shower and both the THM water concentration and the
THM exposure from a shower…” ENVIRON HEALTH PERSPECT- Feb. 1999
Exposures to chlorination by-products (CBP) within public water
supplies are multi-route in water. Cold water is
primarily used for ingestion while
a mixture of cold water and hot water is used for
showering, bathing others, dish washing, etc. These later two
activities result in
dermal exposure. The overall THM exposures calculated
using the THM concentration in heated water were 50% higher
using the THM concentration
present in cold water.” RISK ANAL- Feb. 1994
“ Especially for volatile organic micro-pollutants, exposure routes from
drinking water other than ingestion must be taken into
account (inhalation and percutaneous uptake).” FOOD CHEMISTRY
“ Individuals are exposed to volatile compounds present in tap water by
ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption.” ENVIRON HEALTH PERPECT-
“ As a result, entry by inhalation route is as important as entry by ingestion
route when conducting exposure analyses of contamination
from volatile organic compounds such as TCE.” TOXICAL IND HEALTH- Mar-April 1996
“ Although ingestion is commonly considered to be the primary source of
exposure to chloroform from tap water, inhalation and
skin absorption exposure concentrations were found to be even higher.” SCI TOTAL ENVIRON-
11 Jul. 1998
“ However, other exposure routes, such as dermal absorption and inhalation,
may be important components of an individual’s total exposure to drinking
water disinfection by-products.” “The results
from this study indicate that household activities
such as bathing and
showering are important routes
for human exposure to THMs.”
EXOP ANAL ENVIRON EPIDEMIOL- Jul-Aug. 2000
“ Recently, showers have been suspected to be an important source of indoor
exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC).” “Since estimates
of chloroform risk from domestic water use for the three exposure routes—ingestion,
inhalation and dermal—are similar, all routes
must be used to calculate the total risk when making
quality of the municipal
water supply.” RISK ANAL-Dec 1990
“ A new statistical analysis indicates that people who drink chlorinated
water run a 21 percent greater risk of bladder cancer and a 38 percent greater
risk of rectal cancer than people who drink water with little or no chlorine.” “I
am quite convinced, based on this study, that there
is an association between cancer and chlorinated water.” SCIENCE NEWS- 11 July 1992
“ People who regularly drink water containing chlorine have been found
to have a higher risk of bladder cancer by some researchers.” PREVENTION-
“ It’s time for government and industry to act on the knowledge that
chlorine is a profound threat to human health” says Coling, “and
the evidence has shown that the time to start is
WEEK- 21 Dec. 1994
“ Taking long hot showers is a health risk, according to research presented
last week in Anaheim, California, at a meeting of
the American Chemical Society. Showers, and to a lesser extent baths, lead to
contained in water supplies than does drinking the
water. The chemicals evaporate out of the water and are inhaled. They can also
be inhaled by others. House holders can receive 6
to 100 times more of the chemical by breathing the air around showers and bath
than they would
water.” NEW SCIENTIST 18 September 1986
“ Studies indicate the suspect chemicals can also be inhaled and absorbed
through the skin during showering and bathing. Ironically,
even the chlorine widely used to disinfect water produces carcinogenic traces.
7 out of
10 Americans drink chlorinated water, its safety
over the long term
is uncertain. Drinking chlorinated water may as much as double
the risk of the Bladder Cancer,
which strikes 40,000 people a year.” U.S.
NEWS & WORLD REPORT
July 29 1991
“ A long hot shower can be dangerous. The toxic chemicals are inhaled in
high concentrations.” BOTTOM LINE- August
“ On one hand, chlorination has freed civilization from the constant dangers
of waterborne epidemics. On the other hand in the mid –70s
scientists discovered that chlorination could create carcinogens
in water. 80% of the population drinks
chlorinated water. There was a higher incidence of cancer of the
esophagus, rectum, breast and larynx and of Hodgkin’s
Disease among those drinking chlorinated surface
waters. Volatile organics
can evaporate from
water in a shower or bath.
Conservative calculations indicate that inhalation
exposures can be as significant as exposure from
drinking the water,
that is, one
can be exposed to just as
much by inhalation during a shower as be drinking
2 liters of water a day. People
who shower frequently could be exposed through ingestion,
inhalation and/or dermal absorption.” IS YOUR WATER SAFE TO DRINK?
“ Skin absorption of contaminant has been underestimated and ingestion
may not constitute the sole or even primary route
of exposure.” AMERICAN
JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol. 74-1984
“ Showering is suspected as the primary cause of elevated levels of chloroform
in nearly every home because of the chlorine in the
“ A Professor of Water Chemistry at the University of Pittsburgh claims
that exposure to vaporized chemicals in the water
supplies through showering, bathing, and inhalation is 100 times greater than
“ As chlorine is added to kill pathogenic microorganisms, the highly reactive
chlorine combines with fatty acids and carbon fragments to form a variety of
toxic compounds, which comprise about 30% of the chlorination by – products.”
“ Epidemiological studies suggest a link between ingestion of toxic chemicals
in the water and elevated cancer mortality risks.” THE
NADER REPORT – TROUBLED WATERS ON TAP
“ The National Academy of Sciences estimate that 200 to 1000 people die
in the United States each year from cancers caused
by ingesting the contaminants in water. The major health threat posed by these
to be from their inhalation as air pollutants. The
emissions are high is that because water droplets dispersed by the
shower head have a larger
surface-to-value ratio than water streaming into
SCIENCE NEWS, Vol. 130
“ The cause of arteriosclerosis and resulting heart attaches and strokes
in none other than the ubiquitous chlorine in our
drinking water.” CORONARIES
/ CHOLESTEROL / CHLORINE
“ In the vast majority of cases where germ-free water is required whether
for public supply, or in the swimming pool, the process
of disinfection will involve the use of chlorine in one form or another.” CHEMISTRY AND
CONTROL OF MODERN CHLORINATION
“ Chlorine gas was despicably used during WW1. When the war was over, the
use of chlorine was diverted to poisoning germs in
our drinking water. The combination of chlorine (when in drinking water) and
heart attacks, and death.” WATER CAN UNDERMINE YOUR HEALTH
“ Chlorine is the greatest crippler and killer of modern times. While it
prevented epidemics of one disease, it was creating
another. Two decades ago, after the start of chlorination our drinking water
of heart trouble, cancer and senility began.” SAGINAW HOSPITAL
- Joseph Price, MD
“ Cancer risk among people drinking chlorinated water is 93% higher than
among those whose water does not contain chlorine.” U.S. COUNCIL
OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
“ Drinking tap water that is chlorinated is hazardous, if not deadly to
your health.” HEALTHY WATER FOR A LONG LIFE
“ Known carcinogens are found in drinking water as a direct consequence
of the practice of chlorination. A long established
public health practice for the disinfection of drinking water.” MUNICIPAL
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